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Table of Contents

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………..1

Opposing side……………………………………………………………………………………2

Supporting Research……………………………………………………………………………..3

Personal Stake……………………………………………………………………………………5

Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………5

Works Cited……………………………………………………………………………………..7

 

 

 

 

Climate Change: Stakeholders, Causes, Effects and Probable Solutions

Introduction

Nations in different parts of the world today are facing challenges and issues to do with climate change. The situation has highly worsened in the recent decades that countries are always on the run trying to develop solutions that will aid in the combating of climate change. Research and studies conducted by scientists define climate change as the increase in the temperatures of the earth surface that are beyond the standard rates. Therefore, with the changes and the alterations in temperature, climate change causes effects and impacts not only to the environment but also to the human beings ( Woodward, John).  Research points to the increase in human activities to be among the factors that are highly contributing to the rise and increase in climate change conditions in the world today. Examples of the human activities that cause climate change include deforestation that usually occurs when people are looking for large pieces of land for settlement and agricultural practices. Moreover, burning of charcoal and firewood are identified as anthropogenic activities that cause climate change. In the end, there are impacts that result due to the over increase of the temperatures in the atmosphere. These effects are the growth in sea levels that results from the melting of the ice caps and in the overall result of flooding (UNFCCC). Furthermore, the rise in temperatures will lead to the development of skin diseases on the body of human beings and lastly, the high temperatures act as a breeding environment for pathogens that cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Climate change, therefore, causes more harm and impacts on the environment and the organisms in the environment.

Opposing side

Some scientists are skeptical and always opposing the idea of climate change with some terming the issue as a myth that should not receive the attention that it does.  According to the opinion of the opposing scientists, they believe that the climate change being experienced in different and many parts of the world today are as a result of nature. Furthermore, they share the school of thought that nature has a way of balancing the environmental scenarios thereby in the future, the impacts of climate change will not be as detrimental as other scientists attempt to predict.

Analyzing the thoughts of the opposing experts on climate change, the individuals hold on to the belief that nature is the overwhelming framework when it comes to climate change. In the essence, they believe that the changes that are being referred to as climate change are normal changes that are often occurring in the earth system (Adger, Neil). They are regular earth system cycles according to the opposing members opinions. The opposite side has an impact on the overall theme of climate change. One of the impacts is that it diverts the attention of nations towards the attempt of combating climate change making the institutions reluctant when it comes to the fight against climate change. Consequently, the opposing side holds the fact that the implementation of the Kyoto protocol will have a detrimental effect on the economy of the nations and thus cause a slow growth in the economic sector. The reason, in this case, is the fact that nature changes in different forms and with each change, there will have to be additional sections in the Kyoto protocol that will require extensive financial background for implementation. Hence, according to their opinions, this will cause challenges in the economic sector.

Supporting Research

Climate change is a detrimental issue and global concern. Th effects that it causes to the environment and the organisms in the environment help the fact that it is a menace that requires proper solutions to mitigate further impacts. Consider the causes of climate change that are highly anthropogenic. First, in many countries, human beings are living below the poverty index line which translates to the fact that they will always depend on the natural resources for survival. For example, the human beings will depend on the burning of charcoals and firewood for domestic and also commercial purposes.  There will be thus a release of carbon in the atmosphere which is a greenhouse gas that will cause a rise in atmospheric temperatures. Other anthropogenic activities include the use of pesticides in agricultural that accumulate in the atmosphere absorbing heat rays from the sun causing an increase in temperatures.

The effects of climate change are often on the rise with an increase in anthropogenic activities directly translating to the fact that it should be highly controlled. Climate change causes an increase in the sea level that will in turn cause flooding to the nearby areas. Flooding is destructive as it destroys property, kills the vegetation in the surrounding environments and also causes death to human beings (Hardy, John). The rise in temperatures causes the melting of the ice caps that will increase surface run offs to oceans, rivers, and lakes. Furthermore, another impact of the climate change is the fact that it causes the destruction of the ozone layer causing a puncture on the ozone layer. The destruction of the ozone layer causes the direct penetration of the ultraviolet rays from the sun that causes skin cancer and skin diseases on the human body. The conditions might result in the death of people.

It is also interesting to note that various stakeholders in the environment makes it vital to concentrate on the issue of climate change. The speakers include human beings who directly depend on the environment. The people depend on air for breathing, productive land for cultivation and also clean water for drinking which are all found in the environment. Therefore, having a healthy environment will ensure that the human beings have a healthy functioning body system. Another stakeholder in the environment includes the government which has the mandate to make sure that there is a clean and healthy environment for the citizen’s survival. The Non-governmental institutions, as well as environmental organizations, are stakeholders in the environment and thus, have an interest when it comes to the climate change matter. In the essence, the availability of numerous stakeholders makes the issue a real challenge that needs quick solutions and address (Schmidt, Gavin).

 

Personal stake

Climate change is a real problem that is affecting the world today. Therefore, I share the school of thought that human beings are the major contributors to the issues of climate change that are being witnessed in the world today. The increase in human population has a direct impact on the destruction of the environment with a record increase in the release of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. Therefore, my opinions concur with the scientists who hold onto the fact that anthropogenic activities are the primary causative agents of climate change (Leonard, David and Brash, Kate). Furthermore, the impacts that climate change are detrimental to the environment and the living organisms in the environment that suggest immediate action should be instantly taken. For example, they are dependent on charcoal and firewood as a source of energy not only has impacts to the environment but also causes problems to the families depending on the idea. The carbon that is released into the environment through such mechanisms is always inhaled by the family using the charcoal and firewood which causes respiratory diseases to the human beings. Therefore, climate change is profoundly harmful and needs to have solutions in the anthropogenic sector such as the development of alternative energy sources to mitigate the impacts.

 

 

Conclusion

From the discussions above, it is evident that climate change is detrimental and causes harmful effects on the environment and the living organisms. The effects of climate change include reasons for a rise in sea water levels that results in flooding which in turn destroys the property, the vegetation in the area and also causes death to human beings and aquatic species. Another impact is the destruction of the ozone layer making the ultraviolet rays from the sun penetrate directly into the earth causing skin cancer and diseases to human beings. The conditions are harmful as they have the potential to cause the death of human beings. Consequently, climate change causes hunger as the areas which were once productive in farming are usually converted to deserts which cannot support agriculture. On the other hand, human beings activities have a high percentage of contribution to climate change. It is thus necessary and important for the stakeholders to identify and develop strategies and mechanisms that will help in the curbing of climate change as well as mitigation of the effects. The overall result will be to make the environment safe for living organisms and human beings survival.

 

 

Works Cited

Adger, Neil. Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change. 2006. MIT Press. Accessed from:             https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/fairness-adaptation-climate-change

Hardy, John.. Climate Change. Causes, Effects and Solutions. 2012. John Wiley & Sons. Accessed from: http://www.bluekangaroo.com/product/56697566/climate-change-causes-   effects-and-solutions-john-hardy-9780470850190-0470850191?th

Leonard, David and Brash, Kate. Climate Change: A Reference Handbook. 2009. ABC-CLIO.               Accessed from: http://www.worldcat.org/title/climate-change-a-reference-  handbook/oclc/259716040

Schmidt, Gavin.  Climate Change: Picturing the Science. 2009. W.W. Norton. Accessed from:             https://books.google.co.ke/books/about/Climate_Change.html?id=wv3DNJ4YI7YC&redi r_esc=y

UNFCCC. Climate change: Impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptations in developing             countries. Germany: 2007.The UNFCCC Secretariat. Accessed from:       www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2

Woodward, John . Climate Change. 2011. Dorling Kindersley. Accessed from:             http://www.worldcat.org/title/climate-change/oclc/743051918

 

Pressures for local responsiveness and global standardization: a case study of Nestle & Komatsu Multinational enterprises

 

Nestle is a Switzerland based multinational enterprise. Komatsu on the other hand is construction multinational enterprise based in Japan. Medical food, bottled water, baby food, breakfast cereals, coffee, tea, snacks, daily products, ice cream, frozen food and pet foods are the products that Nestle produces.

Nestle is highly responsive to local pressure. The strategy in marketing used by Nestle is “to act and react locally to specific customer groups based in areas of acquired water springs.” It has succeeded by basing its success on the consumer locality on its brands. It gets specific bottles designed for specific areas. However, this strategy does not help reach all customers they serve in an automated manner thus they have to pay an up-charge to cater for this gap. It falls short of globalization due to its idea on being submissive to localization pressure. (Ludger’s blog, 2009).

According to Slide share, Komatsu has been subjected to globalization where it upgraded its products to obtain international standards with 15 of its businesses capitalizing on globalization. Achieving low costs and increasing the purchasing power in an attempt to exploit its market based competency in addition to gaining access to resources and capabilities in international markets hence spreading business in a wider market push Komatsu to globalization. It strains to be geographically globalized although it does not feature well. It also responsive to local pressure by discounting end prices, managing high sales-pressure and increasing its regional capacity by having regional autonomous bases. (Slide share, 2014).

The Nestle Company needs to globalize because of its sidelined behavior to localness. It’s  much suited to localization due to its market strategy. Komatsu on the other side is in a position getting to local pressure.

Free trade deal has been seen as a challenge to the United States economy thus the call to disregard the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement. If the recommendation is approved, then globalization of companies will be affected. Victims of globalization have made their voices heard through politics. (Tijerina, 2016).

 

References

Tijerina, S. (2016). The Impact on U.S. Politics due to the Globalization process | The Glocal. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://glocal.bangordailynews.com/2016/03/19/home/globalization-and-the-impact-on-u-s-politics/

Ludger’s blog, (2009). Global integration versus local responsiveness Retrieved from http://ludgerroedder.blogspot.co.ke/2009/10/global-integration-versus-local_21.html

Slide share, (2014). Globalization of Komatsu- strategic Management cases Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/BambangWijanarko1/globalization-of-komatsu-strategic-management-cases

 

 

History 271 Paper

 

 

  1. After the Civil war, the Southern infrastructure was almost completely destroyed. Cities and farm fields had also been destroyed. This led to the destruction of the familiar social order, and thus slaves were now free and with the same rights as everyone else. The main problem the slaves faced was lack of food. Since they were now free, the slaves demanded wages if they were to work in farms, however, the owners did not have money to pay them until the harvest came in.
  2. After the Civil War, the southerners land was destroyed, their political institutions became overrun by outsiders, their economy was transitioning and their society had lost its balance. Their lands remained uncultivated as former slaves became free which further imposed a financial strain on the southerners.
  3. Lincoln’s plan was to offer the south and the former confederate’s pardon or amenity. According to Lincoln, Southern states if having a ten percent vote from its citizens would be reinstated into the union and a new construction would be written for the state. Johnson’s plan was similar to Lincoln’s but Johnson sought to please the congress and the Radical Republicans. To achieve this, Johnson started confiscating land from the wealthy aristocratic Southerners. Moreover, he added that for ex-confederates that were worth more than twenty thousand dollars, they would have to be pardoned by the President himself. The Radical Republicans on the other hand, sought to punish the south. They created the black codes and even suggested that black remain in the south as the whites moved to the North.
  4. Lincoln’s death led to a series of unfortunate events on the success of the reconstruction. Without Lincoln, the United States was unable to come up with an appropriate solution to the reconstruction era. His death marked an extended period of discrimination, segregation, racism and fight for equal rights under the constitution.
  5. Radical reconstruction was emphasized by Radical Republicans who emphasized on total destruction of the confederacy’s power. The republicans were angry and resentful to the South for separating from the Union and going to war. They refused accept the South back into the union and wanted them to be punished for their actions.
  6. The 13th, 14th and 15th amendments are collectively referred to as the civil war Amendments. The 13th Amendment banned slavery and involuntary servitude except in cases of punishment for crimes. The 14th amendment defined a United States citizen as anyone who was born or naturalized in the U.S. The 15th amendment prohibited the government from denying any U.S citizens the right to vote on the basis of color, race and past servitude.
  7. Conflict arose between landowners and freed slaves who sought economic autonomy and independence. The freed slaves had initially expected the government to give them a certain amount of land as compensation for slavery, however, when this did no happen, sharecropping emerged. This was a system in which black people would rent small potions of land and give the owner a potion of their harvest at the end of the season.
  8. According to Booker T., blacks needed to stop agitating for equal voting and civil rights not only for economic gains but also to reduce the anti-black violence. On the other hand, Dubois believed that equality with whites was the most important facto. Dubois felt that black people should educate themselves and in the liberal tradition just like white people.
  9. Paleotechnology refers to ancient technology that shaped the path to the modern technology. Paleotechnology greatly contributed to industrial growth through introduction of new manufacturing processes in the period which increased the speed of production of goods and services.
  10. Corporations had global interests which ensured that the major corporations joined in the railroad and ship companies in order to ensure infrastructure grew. This contributed a great deal to industrialization.
  11. The three C’s include Conservation of natural resources, Control of Corporations and Consumer protection. These sought to protect the middle class who were involved in attacking the plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting the businesses from extreme demands of the laborers.
  12. Horizontal integration involves incorporating other assets, companies or infrastructures of the same industry in the same level of production. Vertical integration on the other hand is the expansion into other operations in order to reduce the firm’s dependence on other firms in the production and distribution processes.
  13. A tariff is a tax levied on imported goods and services in order to prevent over flooding a country’s market with imported goods. The government and domestic companies are for tariffs because they help to raise a country’s revenue and also protect the domestic market to ensure that domestic industries remain in play. Exporting countries are against tariffs and may reciprocate by imposing higher tariffs thus resulting in trade wars.
  14. First, the subsidies ensured that the workers were paid per mile. To earn more money, the workers started constructing winding roads. Second, they used cheap and light iron rails. Third, since trees were scarce, workers were paid for the trees delivered, however, the severe scarcity sometimes led to the use of fragile cotton trees.
  15. Hill’s success can be associated with the fact that he looked at the future, something the other railroad builders did not. He studied the areas through which the railroad would pass through and planed the exact route on which the track would be best laid.
  16. When passengers found out that they could get to distant locations quicker, they translated the reduced time into contracting space and spoke as if the distant places had gotten closer.
  17. Some of the inventions that changed people’s lives in the late 1800’s include the telephone by Alexander graham Bell, the escalator by Jesse Reno, motion picture by Thomas Edison, the typewriter by Christopher L. Shole and amusement parks by Frederic Thompson.
  18. The tenement had air and light shafts on either side in the center unlike the previous types of tenements which were stuffy and dark. This design made the immigrant’s lives more bearable in their apartments.
  19. Social Darwinism is the belief that some people were destined for power and wealth because they were naturally stronger. Many wealthy businessmen believed in this concept because it justified their existence. Moreover, the wealthy, such as John D. Rockefeller used Social Darwinism to justify monopolies.
  20. A Social Darwinist would say that poverty is passed from generation to generation through heredity. Poverty would continue for as long as poor people existed, and that they did not have a way of getting out of poverty since they were naturally weak.
  21. The philosophy of trade unionists advocated for direct action and sabotage. The philosophies held of the Knights of Labor on the other hand involved secrecy in order to protect the employees from oppression by their employers.
  22. City bosses aided the immigrants with practical assistance in houses, jobs and other benefits. However, this was a strategy to gain voting base from the immigrants to pursue their own goals. The houses that the immigrants were provided with were poorly sanitized. They also lacked proper health care hindered the improvement of the immigrants’ lives.
  23. Overpopulation in their homes prompted immigrants to move to America, whereas others moved to escape the harsh living conditions in their homes brought about by poor harvests, war and famine.
  24. Wars and depressions weakened the economic and social structures of America and helped to redistribute the population of the immigrants within the United States. Moreover, the increase in intermarriages helped in the assimilation into the American culture. However, Americans’ attitude towards the immigrants retarded the assimilation. The Americans believed that members of other racial or ethnic groups could not be assimilated into their culture.
  25. Women in Coney Island started out as victims who had been corrupted by urban decay and lecherous men, transitioned to moral polluters and eventually gained respectability as economic change, ideas about sexuality and popular tastes changed. Ethnic backgrounds often determined the occupational paths taken.Coney Island affected the ethnicity, classes, and gender of the community due to the interaction of people who visited the island. People interacted, shared ideas leading mixed culture. The classes and gender changed gradually.
  26. The people could command some surplus income. Life was affordable, and those unable to meet the cost of living were poor.
  27. The formula for success at Luna Park was to keep the park competitive.
  28. Victorian values derived from Queen Victoria. They included hard work, personal success, duty, seriousness among others. The values improved commercialized entertainment and shopping experiences.
  29. There was a reduced economic activity due to depression. There was an increased cost of borrowing and productivity.
  30. The farmers wanted a variety of currencies. The silver was affordable to farmers. The farmers therefore preferred a silver currency to back the gold currency.
  31. The farmers supported the regulation of railroad because they were meant to maintain the roads in good condition. The condition would improve through government regulation.
  32. The populist had not supported the urban workers, and their agenda was not directly to help the urban workers.
  33. The tin man was meant to represent industrialism and factory workers. The scarecrow represented western farmers. The flying monkeys were used to represented Native Americans and also for poking fun at politicians. The Wicked Witch of the West was killed and represented the politician William McKinley.
  34. The wars were declared on Spain by the US due to a publication by hearst about a stolen letter. The letter repressed contempt for McKinley. The sinking of the U.S battleship Maine in Havana harbor that lost 260 men also led the war being declared.
  35. The Americans had a common duty to work hard toward development. The destiny was towards an improvement of the economy. The dollars had value compared to other currencies in the word. The value of the dollar gave American a competitive advantage. The defense was able and strong due to development in military equipment by the 20th century. Peace gave Americans a confidence to work harder and invest more leading to development.
  36. Strenuous life according to Theodore Roosevelt meant Americans should be hardy frontiersmen who should struggle against all aspects even those that seemed odd. American should accept their responsibilities however hard they are. According to American history, they had to struggle and also increase in number than the foreigners.
  37. The word manhood was relevant in the American-Spanish war. The gendered ideas on citizenship, as well as political leadership, affected jingoism political leaders` wish to wage conflicts.
  38. The American experience in The Philippines after the war changed the American culture to a big tune. For example/ the American experienced a new way of living and they had a hard time adopting in the Philippines.
  39. The social justice differed from social control. Social justice was meant to bring about justice among the people, but social control ended up controlling what individuals could do and what not to do.
  40. Theodore Roosevelt restrained corporations, trusts, and big businesses. The efforts to regulate businesses led to a weakening of some businesses while others became very strong to grow to monopolies. The act led to reduced competition and high prices.
  41. He introduced a measure to control the railroads, enhanced the modification of the tax system, and also introduced conservation programs. He strengthened national railroad regulation law.
  42. The USA entered the war after the Germany decided to resume a submarine warfare on every ship heading to Britain. The German also started sinking the American ships in North Atlantic.
  43. World War I reduced labor due to involvement in War. Women were affected as the war resulted in a decline of peace and led to reduce economic activities. Black Americans were similarly affected on the home front as the war brought no good to anyone.
  44. The CPI was controversial to influence the public opinion the United States of America citizens that the USA did not participate in World War I
  45. The act was intended to unify the nations in the time of war. The act undermined the concept of free speech. Consequently, any word or action was interpreted as disloyal and brought about federal action.
  46. The USA did not agree with the contents of the League of Nations as it linked to a treaty of Versailles. The cost of joining was also very high. The league did not have an army, and this made it appear less powerful.
  47. League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded in 1920. The United States failed to join the League of Nations as it did not want to involve itself in any war unless approved by the Congress.

48.Due to the invention of automobiles and increased freedom among young people they preferred to get to know people personally by going out to restaurants and cinemas to have the fan, and, therefore dating became popular. Dating made life and relations between men and women more fun and they would even exchange gifts and presents.

  1. Paula Fass believed that flaming youth appeared to be rebellious than they were because they were going and adapting well to the changes in the society from the mode of dressing the way they were socializing.
  2. The twenties are referred to as the dawn of the modern age since it is then that major economic changes occurred and major policies that are used today were developed
  3. Installment buying improved the living standards of the Americans as people could now afford more goods without having to pay the full amount instantly. On the other hand when it came to paying the full amount the installment price was higher than the actual amount
  4. The sale of radio went up with this introduction of mass culture, and people realized that it was fast to remit information; Americans were also opened up to new job opportunities and business opportunities.
  5. A movie by the name birth of a nation which featured customs and rituals of people made Klan seem a good thing, also more inflow of black people who expected higher wages led Klan resurge.
  6. Monkey trial was a legal case in which a high school teacher was would accuse of teaching the human evolution theory in schools which was prohibited.
  7. Andrew Mellon was an American banker who came up with tax policies during the 1920’s which helped in reducing public debt. This reduction led to an economic boom.
  8. Margin buying during the great depression referred to a situation where the investor would make an initial deposit with the broker and make up for the balance later. This habit led to overpricing of stocks, and people couldn’t buy them hence its crash.
  9. The government ensured that the banks were insured and hence people had confidence in them and started saving, money stock increased, and expenditure was now more therefore prices increased and deflation would thereby solve.
  10. Bank deposits not insured and thus as banks failed people simply lost their savings hence this led to more depression. High-interest rates also led to people being discouraged from investing.
  11. The Smoot-Hawley tariff passed into law with the main intention of protecting the US domestic farmers against foreign agricultural imports. The effect was the decline in international trade.

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Timber Processing at Lake Taupo

Emission trading schemes are policies developed by authorities to combat climate change and to help reduce industrial pollution or greenhouse gases. It is an approach that is considered to reduce greenhouse effects in a cost-effective way. In the recent years, a couple of emissions trading systems such as EU emission trading systems, New Zealand scheme, and the Australian scheme have come to existence with systems for trading gas emission allowances. Emissions trading could be referred to as cap and trade. The word ‘cap’ meaning the limits on the quantity of greenhouse gases a factory or manufacturing company should emit per year.

There are two different schemes that were developed to reduce the pollution and climate change: emission trading schemes and emission tax. The two schemes have two significant differences. An emission tax scheme sets the price tag on the amount of greenhouse gases produced by a firm. On the other hand, the emission trading system sets the limit level of emissions. Firms under the ETS decide or determine the price of an emission unit.

The government or international agreements have set the limits of radiation from a particular market. Participants in the emission trade should acquire emission units based on the number of emissions that should be released by the company (Terry & Bartram, 2010). However, when the company overshoots the indicated units, then they are required to purchase additional units from other participants. In this case, the firm that sells the extra units may have reduced their emissions lower than the allocated units.

In economics, emission trading schemes are a market-based approach used to control pollution through taxation. The systems create laws used by greenhouse gas emitting companies by providing tax or economic incentives for abatement of effects and achieving reductions in the impact of the emissions. Many businesses have adopted the trading systems so as to minimize climate change that is as a result of greenhouse-gas emission.

Usually, a central body such as governments set the cap conditions to limit the number of pollutants that a given company could emit. The most common form of emission trade is the cap model. The idea of cap or limits has come into play as emission permits sold to companies and firms. A cap is usually fixed in emissions in the scheme that indicate and report the amount of radiationmeasured in emission units (Cullen, Yan, &Vanderwolk, 2011). The emission permits present the companies with permission to discharge a particular volume of pollutants. The schemes provide the need to acquire several licenses depending on the emission rate of a firm. However, the total number of permits cannot exceed the limits or the cap.

In this article, we primarily focus on the New Zealand Emission Trading Scheme. New Zealand Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) has set limits on pollutants emitted by firms in New Zealand. The ETS was established as a way of obligations on climate change. Also, the ETS puts practices the act of taxing companies for the amount of pollutants released per year. The ETS puts put a price greenhouse gases as taxes to reduce the effects of pollutants on climate change. The ETS sets prices on the emission units, and every pollutant-emitting firms should purchase these units. Under the NZ ETS, emission units, usually distributed to companies through a process called gifting, should be legalized by the NZ government.

The EITE (Emission-intensive and trade exposed) are activities that regulate the level of emission depending on the unit of production. For example, a certain amount of Sulphur dioxide equivalent emission per unit production. The NZ EST provide firms with allocations based on their production limits of emission-intensive goods. The allocation of emission units was done as an intensity based process. Power based process refer to an allocation design that are based on the production volume of a firm.

An economic model of the New Zealand Emission Trading System was released in June 2009 by Nick Smith. The economic model stated the government’s need to modify the emission scheme in future. Nick Smith published a report that identified the limitations in the CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) that was created by the economic model of the climate change policy. Smith’s report concluded that the carbon taxing or an emission trading system was a solution for the short-term results.

The emission units ensure thatmanufacturing companies do not exceed the acceptable volume of pollutants. Also, the ETS system provides that producers provide incentives to reduce the company’s emission. On the other hand, the ETS system is well designed to discourage customers from purchasing emission-intensive products. For example, the implementation of these emission trading systems will encourage investments in the non-pollution process or energy-efficient technology.

New Zealand Emission Trading Scheme has listed different sectors in the country that participate in the ETS. The following areas were listed under the New Zealand Emission Trading Scheme:

  • Agriculture
  • Energy
  • Fishing
  • Forestry
  • Horticulture
  • Industry
  • Synthetic gases
  • Waste

Forestry in New Zealand is considered as the heart of environmental cleaning system. For these reasons, the New Zealand Emission Trading Scheme has developed an emission trading system on timber processors for the abatement of pollution. In the greenhouse emission process, the trees and plants as a whole absorb excessive carbon in the air. Therefore, plants should be preserved and protected from uncontrolled timber processing. The government of New Zealand passed a policy to protect the forest around Lake Taupo. The amount of carbon dioxide stored in plants primarily depends on the number of species and density of wood in a particular area.

Forestry entered the ETS in early 2008. Because the plant kingdom plays a significant role in maintaining and cleaning the environment, the forest sector was the first to enter the ETS. The New Zealand noticed the importance of trees and forest in meeting its international obligations for the pollutant (greenhouse gas emission). Timber processing at Lake Taupo will pose an environmental threat whereby trees and another useful plant in Lake Taupo will be destroyed. Therefore, strict measures should follow so as to prevent or reduce the destruction of trees and forests (Tuerk, 2009). Emission trading in New Zealand directly affects the activities around Lake Taupo. All the timber processing firms at Lake Taupo should possess a permit from the New Zealand Emission Trading Scheme to legalize the cutting of trees.

The concept of the New Zealand Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) tend to reach an objective that will see timber processing at Lake Taupo create less threat to the forest and trees in the region. The ETS has created a path that forest owners should use to choose the right species to plant and cut down. The investment objective was focused on long-term carbon sequestration, there could be a shift from pine to long-living species such as redwoods, eucalyptus, and Douglas-fir. The introduction and practice of New Zealand Emission Trading Scheme will ensure that the economics of established indigenous forests improves. Also, the returns from carbon provide a much earlier income stream compared with a timber-only investment.

The introduction of New Zealand Emission Trading Scheme shows it is unlikely that a significant shift in stocking rates will reduce to facilitate a regime that will maximize carbon profitability and minimize tending cost. Alongside the New Zealand Emission Trading Scheme, there exist other climate change policies such as the Afforestation Grant Scheme (AGS). The AGS was established in the year 2006. The first idea of the AGS came into existence in the discussion document Sustainable Land Management and Climate Change released in late 2006.

The New Zealand government went forward to implement other programs that could see the reduction of environmental pollution and greenhouse gases. The Permanent Forest Sink Initiative enabled private landowners to receive Kyoto-complaint carbon credits (AAUs). The Kyoto-complaint carbon credits were obtained when private landowners established new permanent forests. Private forest mainly comprised of exotic or indigenous species. However, the Permanent Forest Sink Initiative operates through a covenant mechanism.

As noted before, the New Zealand government has already developed a variety of emission trading schemes that will help control the rapid change in climate change and environmental pollution. The emission trading systems are designedabout the business-as-usual projections. The Permanent Forest Sink Initiative has acted as the remaining option for forest landowners who would wish to separate their forestry practices from regular forestry. Numerous analysis and research indicate that the New Zealand Emission Trading System will contribute positively to the rate of return for a forest owner under its conditions and regulations.

Despite the establishment of resources such as emission systems, significant progress will reflect when the economic system mirrors the cost of pollutants or emissions. However, it is important to add more price-based systems that regulate the rate of emissions. The rationale for emission trading primarily focus on reduction in greenhouse gas emission, helping firms to manage emissions obligations, reducing the climate change effects, and helping nations around the world to protect the economy during the transition.

The price-based measures or emission trading systems have a different economic rationale for a particular reason. The logic behind the price-based steps in reducing emissions has played as the primary objective of these trading systems. For many reasons, a poorly designed price-based system may affect the goals and turn it into a business for tax collectors. Under the ETS, New Zealand will become responsible for its emission in quotas. However, primary sources of emissions will fall under systems that are yet to be developed. An effective trading system should create market incentives to reduce emissions at a low cost. The reduction in emissions could obtain through economic activities.

On the other hand, the price-based systems ensure that the financial returns from legal, environmental practices will improve. These emission trading systems also ensure that emitters will invest in personal operations by improving their effectiveness and efficiency to reduce the rate of pollutant emissions before incorporating other methods of reducing pollutants. There exist two options for emission trading systems: carbon taxing and emission trading scheme. Both are price-based and share unique fundamental features. The key features include the cap or limits and points of obligations.

In both cases, there are ways in which the emission system will determine which companies or firms should pay what amount of tax. The point in which a company should pay tax for emissions is also called the point of obligation. The point of obligation determines which companies are required to trade emission units or pay tax to the government. An active and successful ETS possess five key characteristics: comprehensiveness, tradability, assurance, compliance, and flexibility. The scheme intends to maintain and control a supply of emissions reduction chances or opportunities. Maintaining these opportunities will help fewer charges for emission units in a particular market. Despite the commitment of the emission trading system, there is still a lot to cover so that public emitters, political leaders, and policymakers should engage in the EST.

Flexibility refers to the ability to modify or adopt a gradual change in the in the New Zealand’s emission trading scheme. The ETS could change with respect to the country’s obligation under the international pollution policy. On the other hand, the emission trading system flexible characteristic provide the opportunity to reform, restructure, and adopt a new international climate change policy.

Tradability is another essentialfeatureof a well-structured trading system. Tradability refers to the property of a good that can be sold in a different place. The emission trading should be tradable to various locations outside New Zealand or marketable to other firms. The marketable characteristic of trading systems acts as international linkage that ensures an integrated market or liquid market. Tradability ensures that New Zealand companies under the trading system take advantage of the pollutant reduction opportunities from other countries. Other countries could have a different emission trading schemes that firms in New Zealand could prefer to use. Therefore, trading the emission units with other companies or other countries make the adaptable and tradable situation for firms.

Assurance is the confidence for achieving a goal or set of objectives. A well-planned emission trading system should have the characteristic of confidence. In the case of the New Zealand Emission Trading System, the degree of creditability ensures that the companies can purchase the emission units on credit. Also, the ETS set high standards and assurance for verification, monitoring, and reporting.

The ETS possess the compliance characteristic. As defined by the Ministry of Environment of New Zealand, the conformity of the system refers to “a credible penalty regime for non-compliance, including financial penalties, together with make-good provisions that ensure environmental integrity.” On a brief note, compliance policy requires that all the firms under the New Zealand emission trading system should follow and accept policies and rules in the pollution system.

The trading scheme does not address the global warming issue.  Despite establishing the Emission Trading System, greenhouse gases still find their way to the atmosphere. Solving global warming means that all the greenhouse gases should not come to contact with the environment. Also, finding a way that households will not use oil, coal, and gas is a way that directly addresses the issue of global warming. Emission trading systems are numeric because they are price-based. Pollution continues even after establishing the trading schemes.

Carbon trading aims at reducing the effects of greenhouse gases on the environment. However, the goal or objectives of the emission schemes do not solve the environmental problem directly. Manipulation of the systemshas seen firms acquire units and permits in the cheapest way possible. The system acts as an assurance for fossil fuel industries to operate as long as possible (Faure &Peeters, 2008)..

The emission trading system does not care for the climate change, and however, it cares for the amount of money traded for the emission units. The price of emission units does not provide a cap that is climatically active. Buyers of the emission unit snap up cheap pollution rights which create a threat to the climate change. Most firms populate carbon market regulators that have conflicts of interest.

Carbon trading systems have proven to interfere with the active problem-solving methods to global warming. The emission trading systems support the hydropower company that result in significant carbon emissions compared to small scale businesses that practice natural methods of farming. Also, emission trading system squanders resources and ingenuity on a wrong objective. Emission trading tend to keep its traders happy, blindfolding them from the long-term effects of the scheme. The system helps the buyers, consultants, and sellers to use cunning means of producing permits for personal profits.

Finally, the EST or emission trading system is not based on experience but faith. The trading scheme favors slogans rather than the experience. For this reason, failures have occurred because the response to the crisis cannot be tackled by economists. Auctioning pollution rights does not prevent firms from polluting the environment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Cullen R., Yan, X.,&Vanderwolk, J. (2011). Green Taxation in East Asia. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Terry, S. & Bartram, G. (2010). The Carbon Challenge. Wellington: Bridget Williams Books Limited.

Tuerk, A. (2009). Linking Emissions Trading Schemes. London: Earthscan Publishing Company.

Faure, M. G., &Peeters, M. (2008).Climate Change and European Emissions Trading: Lessons for Theory and Practice. . Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.